Read chapter 9 for next week’s class.
Be prepared to discuss the handout tomorrow.
List 3 things you learned from this article and share on the discussion board.
A lot of professors assign readings like these; i.e., students read a piece of text, respond to it in some way and/or come prepared to discuss it in class. Yet over half of students don’t do the assigned readings, and often it’s because professors assign too much. (1, 2)
Maybe it’s time we stop assigning readings.
Perhaps we should instead start assigning tasks.
Picture this: You’re teaching about gender inequality. You want students to read a handout on this topic, but you're concerned they won’t read it or that they’ll only do so superficially. Instead of telling students, “Read this handout and write a one-page response,” you might assign the following task:
Research the pay gap between men and women in 3 different industries/jobs. Explain why you think these jobs pay unfair wages.
Here’s a meaningful task students can focus on, rather than on some handout. But for students to report on unfair wages, they need to read up on the topic, right? That’s where you recommend certain sources:
To help, I’ve provided two handouts and a video. Refer to at least three ideas or supporting details from any of these sources in your write-up.
See how the readings play a secondary, almost incidental, role?
This is the case even if the reading comes from a textbook. Let’s say you teach Introduction to Biology, and this week you need to cover chapter 35, titled “Vascular Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.”
You could assign Chapter 35 and hope students read and digest all the terms covered. Or you could focus on one particular area—the structure of leaves and their functions—and turn it into a task/assignment:
Collect 3-5 different kinds of leaves (yes, actual leaves!) and analyze them. Tape them onto a piece of paper and label as many parts as you can that are visible. The more you’re able to do so, the better. Chapter 35 will help you do this. Come prepared during class to discuss what each part does.
While there are many (perhaps better) ways to ensure students understand plant structure, the lesson here is the same: don’t make reading the main thing, even though we know it’s a necessary part of the assignment.
So, why might a task-based approach to reading motivate students more?
Essentially, it mirrors the way we read in real life. Aside from reading for pleasure, we read because we want to get better at something or know more about a topic. Books such as How to Build Your Baby’s Brain, The Self-Driven Child, and Raising Kids Who Read have provided me, for instance, with incredible insights into raising my twin infant girls. Yet I would never read such books if it didn’t support my larger parenting goals.
Intentional reading also changes the way we read, turning us from a passive reader who “proceeds from the first word to the last word of a text at a rate predictable by the text’s structure, to one of a purposeful information-seeker who adapts the way they read to achieve that purpose.” (3) With my parenting books, I have selectively skipped paragraphs, sections, and even whole chapters that I considered less relevant. Why wouldn’t we expect students to be just as discerning?
A task-based approach can work even for literature classes or courses where students read fiction text. Compare two ways to approach Ralph Ellison’s novel Invisible Man:
Read Chapter 1 and come prepared to discuss the roles that the narrator is forced to play during his class speech. [Here, the reading is the main focus.]
Think about the last time you were forced to “play a role” you didn’t necessarily want to play. Post a short paragraph describing this role and why you felt this way. Make sure to include how it compares with and differs from the narrator’s experiences in Chapter 1. [Here, the reading serves the larger task/assignment.]
Of course, reading literature has a generally different purpose than reading nonfiction text; in fact, oftentimes reading here is the goal. Students in a literature circle (which is kind of like a book club for students) or a graduate research class, for example, are analyzing texts for their own sake.
For most of us, however, readings serve as the “information transfer” phase of learning.
The next time you plan readings, consider the larger goal you want students to reach, the task you want them to complete, or the skill you want them to develop. Then provide the resource(s) to help them get there. It might include not just readings, but also videos and other primary documents.
Let’s break down a task-based approach to reading into four steps, each with an example:
STEP 1: Decide the goal/task AND the readings (ideally, you want to make sure the reading is essential to doing well in the task).
Objective: This week, I want my education students to be able to teach adding and subtracting with math manipulatives.
Reading: They will read Chapter 9, “Estimation and Computational Procedures for Whole Numbers.”
STEP 2: Frame the assignment in terms of the goal or task ONLY. Ignore the readings in this step (it will be incorporated in Step 3).
Your goal this week is to figure out the best way to teach addition and subtraction using base-ten blocks. (Add details if necessary.)
STEP 3: Add the readings as a recommendation (to help students accomplish their task/goal).
Use the strategies from chapter 9 to decide which works best for you and write a 2-paragraph plan.
STEP 4: Tell students how the information will be used (and how they are held accountable).
Next week in class, you will share your plan and decide which ideas work best!
Put together, here is the fleshed-out assignment that students see, packaged around a hypothetical scenario:
She’s eight years old and in third grade. But she has trouble multiplying two-digit numbers. Conceptually, she knows that multiplying has something to do with groups. Yet the traditional algorithmic way to multiply is too abstract for her.
How would YOU teach Julissa? Your goal is to figure out the best way to teach multiplication using base-ten blocks. Consider the strategies from chapter 9 and decide which resonates most with you—and which you think would actually help Julissa.
Write a 2-paragraph plan explaining/justifying your instructional choice. Next week in class, you will share your plan and come to a group consensus.
See how I embed the reading without explicitly assigning it? This task would be impossible to do without reading the chapter. No quizzes, “gotcha” questions in class, or reading responses are necessary to compel students to read.
Just make sure you hold students accountable for doing the assignment. In some cases, the simple act of having them share their thoughts in class is enough. Other times you may decide that the task is worth a certain number of points and/or that students have to post their responses on the online discussion board.
As you can imagine, it’s not always necessary to use a task-based approach. Some readings, such as an article on how to land a job interview or a chapter about the impact of social media, are inherently purposeful and motivating for students. Using task-based approaches depends on you and your goal.
Perhaps the real promise of task-based approaches to reading comes when we can stop dictating the sources. Students would be the ones who must figure out what texts to read and what videos to watch. All we have to do is come up with the goals or tasks. That’s when students become true self-directed learners.
For now, let’s start by positioning reading where it should be—in service to the goals and tasks we assign. This would be a significant step to helping students see reading as useful, rather than as simply something they must do.
Let me know if this approach to reading helps - leave a comment or question below!
(1) Hoeft, Mary E. (2012) "Why University Students Don't Read: What Professors Can Do To Increase Compliance," International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Vol. 6: No. 2, Article 12. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/ij-sotl/vol6/iss2/12/
(2) Cynthia S. Deale & Seung Hyun (Jenna) Lee (2021) To Read or Not to Read? Exploring the Reading Habits of Hospitality Management Students, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, DOI: 10.1080/10963758.2020.1868317
(3) Durik, A. M., Britt, M. A., Rouet, J. (2017). Literacy beyond text comprehension: A theory of purposeful reading. United States: Taylor & Francis.
Last week I conducted classes virtually and in real time on Zoom, Google Hangouts, and Collaborate Ultra (Blackboard’s videoconferencing feature). And the whole time all I could focus on was the sea of blank avatars—rather than actual faces—staring back at me.
Why did it matter? Why had students decided to turn off their camera? To be honest, I took it a bit personally. I wanted to duplicate the rapport we had in the classroom. Students used to bounce ideas off each other and seemed at ease conversing. Yet two-thirds of them now didn’t even want to be seen.*
So I surveyed students the next day, using Google Forms. In total, 45 responded. The first question I wanted addressed: How comfortable are you showing your face on camera?
Almost 45 percent felt comfortable; they chose either a 4 or 5. That surprised me. Still, a quarter of them (24.4%) were not. The rest (31.1%) fell somewhere in the middle.
The next question: WHY do you think students are reluctant to show their faces?
Their responses boiled down to three overlapping reasons, listed below (each followed by a selected quote):
- Privacy: Off the top of my head it’s probably due to feeling like [students’] privacy is being invaded. It’s not only the professor seeing them, but the whole class. Like for me, [the] best WiFi connection is in the family room . . . Everyone walks around there. The females in my family cover up so it’s a hassle for them not to comfortably walk around. Since people are home and not looking as presentable they normally would outside, they feel either shy [or] embarrassed to show themselves. [Me] included.
- Self-conscious: On FaceTime, people tend to be comfortable being judged by just one person but when there is a possibility to have more than one pair of eyes simultaneously on you, unknowing of who is “staring” at you, you don’t know how you’re being judged by multiple people at a time.
- Not camera-ready: It could be [because of] appearance . . . Since we are in the comfort of our own home we don’t put effort to look presentable as if it were a classroom setting or social setting.
The final question I asked in the survey: What is one solution you think may help students feel more comfortable turning on the video/camera? Many of the solutions, listed below, gave me hope.
Having other students in the class use their camera makes me more comfortable to use mine
Turning on the camera often definitely will help me getting used to it, but it needs time.
I think as time goes on people will start to feel more comfortable. I think [the] more people start using the camera feature [the] more people will follow suit.
Building a “classroom environment” (even though it’s online) of having a judgement-free zone and instilling confidence in the students. I think this would happen naturally with time.
May be if [students] are told to dress in casual clothes rather than pajamas and attend the class in a more professional way that might work
I feel this is personal for each individual, but I think mindset goes a long way. I think of it as me participating in a community where I’m professional and that I’m committed to what’s going on within the class.
Maybe it will take some time for [students] to get used to it. Since this all is new.
Encouraging students to do the video and the more people that do it, students are more likely to show their faces.
Tell them they have to lol… comfortability [sic] comes after familiarity
If everyone else turned on their camera or if you made it mandatory
i think we need to make each other comfortable when we are meeting virtually. What I mean is that, we need to compliment each other certain time. This can happen like if we were given a 5 min free time to just talk to each other personally as a group maybe; without talking about class work.
Have everyone turn on their cameras. Sometimes it will only a few people with the camera on. It’s a little awkward. I know if everyone did it then, I would feel comfortable.
Having students get ready as if they were going to go to their in-person meeting
While there were many more answers, they can be summarized as follows:
- Require students to use the camera, and over time they will get used to it
- Professionalize the class experience
- Cultivate a respectful and comfortable learning environment
I think I will need to set the tone early on. Tell students that my course is a professional environment for learning. That I don’t consider it “learning from home,” which means I expect them to show up on camera the same way they show up to face-to-face classes. For some it means wearing makeup or doing their hair. For others it means putting on their “outside clothes” (as opposed to wearing pajamas).
Regardless, I won’t require students to show their faces. Many issues that aren’t a big deal to me are to others. I want to balance between getting students accustomed to showing their faces online (in a closed, class environment) and respecting their concerns. At the very least, I’ll ask students to upload an actual picture of their face. It’s better than seeing a blank avatar.
A couple hours before the last class of the week, I sent this text to students:
Guess what happened in class? About three-quarters of students ended up turning their camera on—a promising start! Let’s see what happens the rest of the term. I’ll make sure to report back.
Your turn. What have your experiences been so far with students turning on their video camera? Please share!
* A few had legitimate problems with their laptop cameras.