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July 3, 2018 12:01 pm

Norman Eng

Read chapter 9 for next week’s class.

Be prepared to discuss the handout tomorrow.

List 3 things you learned from this article and share on the discussion board.

A lot of professors assign readings like these; i.e., students read a piece of text, respond to it in some way and/or come prepared to discuss it in class. Yet over half of students don’t do the assigned readings, and often it’s because professors assign too much. (1, 2)  

Maybe it’s time we stop assigning readings. 

Perhaps we should instead start assigning tasks.

Picture this: You’re teaching about gender inequality. You want students to read a handout on this topic, but you're concerned they won’t read it or that they’ll only do so superficially. Instead of telling students, “Read this handout and write a one-page response,” you might assign the following task:

Research the pay gap between men and women in 3 different industries/jobs. Explain why you think these jobs pay unfair wages. 

Here’s a meaningful task students can focus on, rather than on some handout. But for students to report on unfair wages, they need to read up on the topic, right? That’s where you recommend certain sources:

To help, I’ve provided two handouts and a video. Refer to at least three ideas or supporting details from any of these sources in your write-up.  

See how the readings play a secondary, almost incidental, role? 

This is the case even if the reading comes from a textbook. Let’s say you teach Introduction to Biology, and this week you need to cover chapter 35, titled “Vascular Plant Structure, Growth, and Development.”

You could assign Chapter 35 and hope students read and digest all the terms covered. Or you could focus on one particular area—the structure of leaves and their functions—and turn it into a task/assignment:   

Collect 3-5 different kinds of leaves (yes, actual leaves!) and analyze them. Tape them onto a piece of paper and label as many parts as you can that are visible. The more you’re able to do so, the better. Chapter 35 will help you do this. Come prepared during class to discuss what each part does. 

While there are many (perhaps better) ways to ensure students understand plant structure, the lesson here is the same: don’t make reading the main thing, even though we know it’s a necessary part of the assignment. 

So, why might a task-based approach to reading motivate students more?

Essentially, it mirrors the way we read in real life. Aside from reading for pleasure, we read because we want to get better at something or know more about a topic. Books such as How to Build Your Baby’s Brain, The Self-Driven Child, and Raising Kids Who Read have provided me, for instance, with incredible insights into raising my twin infant girls. Yet I would never read such books if it didn’t support my larger parenting goals. 

Intentional reading also changes the way we read, turning us from a passive reader who “proceeds from the first word to the last word of a text at a rate predictable by the text’s structure, to one of a purposeful information-seeker who adapts the way they read to achieve that purpose.” (3) With my parenting books, I have selectively skipped paragraphs, sections, and even whole chapters that I considered less relevant. Why wouldn’t we expect students to be just as discerning?

A task-based approach can work even for literature classes or courses where students read fiction text. Compare two ways to approach Ralph Ellison’s novel Invisible Man:

Old Way:

Read Chapter 1 and come prepared to discuss the roles that the narrator is forced to play during his class speech. [Here, the reading is the main focus.]

New Way:

Think about the last time you were forced to “play a role” you didn’t necessarily want to play. Post a short paragraph describing this role and why you felt this way. Make sure to include how it compares with and differs from the narrator’s experiences in Chapter 1. [Here, the reading serves the larger task/assignment.]

Of course, reading literature has a generally different purpose than reading nonfiction text; in fact, oftentimes reading here is the goal. Students in a literature circle (which is kind of like a book club for students) or a graduate research class, for example, are analyzing texts for their own sake. 

For most of us, however, readings serve as the “information transfer” phase of learning. 

The next time you plan readings, consider the larger goal you want students to reach, the task you want them to complete, or the skill you want them to develop. Then provide the resource(s) to help them get there. It might include not just readings, but also videos and other primary documents. 

Let’s break down a task-based approach to reading into four steps, each with an example: 

STEP 1: Decide the goal/task AND the readings (ideally, you want to make sure the reading is essential to doing well in the task). 

ObjectiveThis week, I want my education students to be able to teach adding and subtracting with math manipulatives.

ReadingThey will read Chapter 9, “Estimation and Computational Procedures for Whole Numbers.”

STEP 2: Frame the assignment in terms of the goal or task ONLY. Ignore the readings in this step (it will be incorporated in Step 3).

Your goal this week is to figure out the best way to teach addition and subtraction using base-ten blocks. (Add details if necessary.) 

STEP 3: Add the readings as a recommendation (to help students accomplish their task/goal).

Use the strategies from chapter 9 to decide which works best for you and write a 2-paragraph plan.

STEP 4: Tell students how the information will be used (and how they are held accountable).

Next week in class, you will share your plan and decide which ideas work best!

Put together, here is the fleshed-out assignment that students see, packaged around a hypothetical scenario: 

Meet Julissa.

She’s eight years old and in third grade. But she has trouble multiplying two-digit numbers. Conceptually, she knows that multiplying has something to do with groups. Yet the traditional algorithmic way to multiply is too abstract for her. 

How would YOU teach Julissa? Your goal is to figure out the best way to teach multiplication using base-ten blocks. Consider the strategies from chapter 9 and decide which resonates most with you—and which you think would actually help Julissa.

Write a 2-paragraph plan explaining/justifying your instructional choice. Next week in class, you will share your plan and come to a group consensus.

See how I embed the reading without explicitly assigning it? This task would be impossible to do without reading the chapter. No quizzes, “gotcha” questions in class, or reading responses are necessary to compel students to read. 

Just make sure you hold students accountable for doing the assignment. In some cases, the simple act of having them share their thoughts in class is enough. Other times you may decide that the task is worth a certain number of points and/or that students have to post their responses on the online discussion board.  

As you can imagine, it’s not always necessary to use a task-based approach. Some readings, such as an article on how to land a job interview or a chapter about the impact of social media, are inherently purposeful and motivating for students. Using task-based approaches depends on you and your goal. 

Perhaps the real promise of task-based approaches to reading comes when we can stop dictating the sources. Students would be the ones who must figure out what texts to read and what videos to watch. All we have to do is come up with the goals or tasks. That’s when students become true self-directed learners. 

For now, let’s start by positioning reading where it should be—in service to the goals and tasks we assign. This would be a significant step to helping students see reading as useful, rather than as simply something they must do. 

Let me know if this approach to reading helps - leave a comment or question below!

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Sources:

(1) Hoeft, Mary E. (2012) "Why University Students Don't Read: What Professors Can Do To Increase Compliance," International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Vol. 6: No. 2, Article 12. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/ij-sotl/vol6/iss2/12/

(2) Cynthia S. Deale & Seung Hyun (Jenna) Lee (2021) To Read or Not to Read? Exploring the Reading Habits of Hospitality Management Students, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, DOI: 10.1080/10963758.2020.1868317

(3) Durik, A. M., Britt, M. A., Rouet, J. (2017). Literacy beyond text comprehension: A theory of purposeful reading. United States: Taylor & Francis.

A while ago, one of my “quiet” students, Myra, came up to me after class. “I really like this class,” she said.

“Why?” I asked.

“Because it’s interesting. I want to learn more.”

It got me thinking that night. What really is our ultimate goal as teachers? To get students to learn? To make class interesting? Because I get a lot of questions from professors about how to motivate. Apparently, bored students is a problem and engaging them is a big part of teaching. Experts seem to agree.(1)

I could give answers like, “Involve students more.” Or “Make your content relevant” or “Give them choices.” Good, practical advice, for sure. In fact, I definitely recommend these ideas in my training.

But there’s something that leaves me wanting more. Maybe it’s because we’re always trying to induce students to do something. Shouldn’t we get them to want to do something on their own?

In other words, it seems we focus too much on motivating, rather than inspiring.

The former is about dangling carrots: Do this, and you’ll get an extra five points! It’s external. So students will do that extra credit, or study for that test, but just enough to get the desired result. Once they pass, they won’t care. The math, the history, the chemistry—almost all forgotten.

But when students are inspired, they WANT to learn. It’s internal.

So I’m forming a better idea of my ultimate goal as teacher: To get students to want to learn more. On their own, by inspiring them. Isn’t that the essence of life-long learning? Isn’t this what we really want in the end—for school to propel students toward action?

What This Means For You

Students equate the teacher to the discipline:

“If the physics professor is cool, then physics is cool.” If the professor is dull, the student will think the same of the discipline. If the professor is so dull that the student never takes another physics course, well, that impression could hold for the rest of her life. (2)

Isn’t that so true? Some students were traumatized by math because they had teachers who made them feel stupid. Others couldn’t keep up. Whatever the reason was, ultimately these kids had bad experiences with math.

Maybe we should change our mindset about teaching. In fact, maybe we shouldn’t be calledteachers, or even professors. Neither term gets to the heart of what we do.

Maybe we should be coaches (or cognitive coaches, as Goucher College president Jose Bowen suggests (3)).

Coaches inspire, motivate, and guide. And when you’re inspired, you do things on your own. Lose weight. Get fit. Win the ball game. That’s not to say coaches don’t provide the tactics, the strategies, the X’s and O’s. Content is important too.

But inspiration—i.e., the emotion, the purpose—is what drives behavior. It’s what drove Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, an unknown 28-year-old Bronx native, to run against one of the senior leaders of the House, Joseph Crowley, during the recent midterm primary elections in New York. And win.

No amount of “content” will ever drive such boldness. I want my students to do what Ms. Ocasio-Cortez did. Jump.

Myra, my quiet student, originally wanted to go into chemistry. But her professors didn’t feel she had “the right stuff.” So Myra switched to education and stumbled into my course. When she told me this class inspired her to learn more—heck, to become a teacher(!)—it was actually the highest compliment she could have given.

Forget covering the curriculum. Forget stuffing content. Focus instead of creating great learning experiences. That, I believe, is my real role as a teacher.

The Take-away

My goal: To inspire students so they’ll WANT to learn more

My role: To create awesome learning experiences

Everything else comes second.

—————-

Note: Myra is not my student’s real name

(1) e.g., see https://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/ed/17/01/bored-out-their-minds and https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-13120-7

(2) https://www.chronicle.com/article/It-Matters-a-Lot-Who-Teaches/243125

(3) https://www.edsurge.com/news/2017-06-28-stop-calling-college-teachers-professors-try-cognitive-coaches-says-goucher-president

  • Norman this article is really what teaching should be about. I often thought about the difference between motivation and inspiration and it’s great to see you touch on that. for me going in this fall, I’m all about inspiring and creating those meaningful experiences you talked about. would love to hear more about how to create them.

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